“spending hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to think of anything more idiotic than that.” ~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA
Running on "green fuel" such as Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, Synthesis Gas or natural gas, our CHP Systems are the greenest "clean power generation" systems available, producing no new greenhouse gas emissions!
"Integrated" CHP Systems (Cogeneration and Trigeneration) Plants
Have Very High Efficiencies, Low Fuel Costs & Low Emissions with
Little to no Greenhouse Gas Emissions when fueled by
B100 Biodiesel, Biomethane, Synthesis Gas or even Solar
The Effective Heat Rate for the CHP System below is
4100 btu/kW with a System Efficiency rating of 92%.
The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional
Selective Catalytic Reduction system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."
Our CHP Systems may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions.
Our Emissions Abatement solutions reduce Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect" which means our CHP Systems can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!
Onsite CHP systems including trigeneration power and energy system can be an ideal solution for customers wanting increased power reliability and decreased energy and environmental costs. A few of the types of buildings and businesses that would benefit from an onsite trigeneration plant include the following:
Colleges & Universities
District Heating & Cooling plants
Food Processing Plants
Government Buildings and Facilities
Office Buildings / Campuses
Use of Renewable
Energy and Decreased Use of Foreign Oil
Will Solve Many Problems Facing America
Problems relating to Fossil Fuels
America's Clear and Present Danger
Wars and world wars are the future for countries that continue to be dependent on fossil fuels they must import from foreign countries to meet their demand for energy.
Peak oil is a reality and with a growing India and China - they will be using more oil every year, and place additional demands on a finite supply of oil available each day. There is nowhere but "up" in terms of how much oil will cost in the next 2-3 years, particularly after the global recession and America's "depression" is over.
As international demand for oil continues to increase, the price of oil will increase. Most of Europe pays $7.00 to $8.00 per gallon for gasoline already. In the USA, gasoline recently exceeded $4.00/gallon. While the USA cannot "turn off" its dependence on fossil fuels overnight, we need to begin the transition to an economy free of fossil fuels. This may take 30 years, and in the interim, the USA needs to transition away from buying oil from foreign countries, particularly from OPEC and middle east countries and begin producing the oil and natural gas from our own country.
Fossil fuels and a country's dependence on them causes wars and an unstable economy. Is there any other reason for America's "treasure" to be in OPEC countries, except to "safeguard" our access to their country's oil resources?!?
Increased dependence on fossil fuels = increased likelihood a country will be involved in a war.
Increased dependence on renewable energy = greater likelihood a country will be less likely to be involved in a war.
The quicker that a country ramps up its use of renewable energy, the sooner that country will see long-term peace and prosperity.
America spends over $1.3 billion every day, importing the oil it needs, much from counties that support terrorism, and don't like the U.S. The U.S. only produces 7 million bbls/oil/day, yet we need 20 million bbls/oil/day or America's economy shuts down.
Renewable Energy Institute does not take a stand on whether man-made climate
change is happening or not. However, how can the "dumping" of 30
Billion metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions
(one of the "dirty six" greenhouse
gas emissions) each year (in the U.S.) that are produced from
"man-made" combustion of
fossil fuels into the atmosphere each year, be a good thing?
The earth's ecosphere can only absorb about half of the carbon dioxide emissions each year. Dumping billions of tons of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere through fossil fuel combustion, cannot go on indefinitely, and will reach a "tipping point" at which point "dangerous interference" or "dangerous climate change" becomes irreversible.
And the climate's recent history of year-after-year of increasing temperatures, and increased losses of the Arctic and Antarctic ice, lends us to believe, something is up with the climate, and it does not appear to be a good thing.
Fossil Fuels are Dirty Fuels:
Combustion of fossil fuels produces air pollutants, including; carbon monoxide, mercury, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and heavy metals. Combustion of fossil fuels generates carbonic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid, which returns to the environment "acid rain." Fossil fuels also contain radioactive materials, mainly uranium and thorium, which are released into the atmosphere. In the year 2000, about 12,000 tons of thorium and 5,000 tons of uranium were released globally from burning coal.
Mercury emissions are particularly toxic as mercury, when ingested, is a lethal neurotoxin that is integrated and passed from the bottom to the top of the food chain. 5,500 tons of mercury emissions entered the global environment in 1995. These mercury emissions have had a devastating effect on marine life. This is the reason why women who are pregnant must limit their intake of fish - women who eat fish expose their unborn baby to numerous health defects including brain damage, liver damage and kidney damage, from the mercury in the food supply. High levels of mercury can have a toxic effect on the nervous systems of humans. The term "mad hatter" derives from the fact the mercury was used in leather tanning to make hats in previous centuries, and some people developed nervous disorders from continuous exposure to high mercury levels.
Renewable Energy Potential in the U.S.
Energy Technologies and Renewable Energy Resources now generate about 7% of
America's energy requirements. Yet, generating America's power and energy
requirements has the potential of supplying 85% of America's
energy requirements - in the next 10 years - and at prices competitive with fossil
New Jobs: Over 1 million new jobs can be created by meeting America's energy requirements via renewable energy.
What is Renewable Energy?
Energy is defined as any energy resource that is naturally regenerated over a
short time scale and derived directly from the sun (such as thermal,
photochemical, and photoelectric), indirectly from the sun (such as wind,
hydropower, and photosynthetic energy stored in biomass), or from other natural
movements and mechanisms of the environment (such as geothermal and tidal
energy). Renewable energy does not include energy resources derived from fossil
fuels, waste products from fossil sources, or waste products from inorganic
What are "Distributed Energy Resources"?
Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are small, modular, energy generation and energy storage systems and technologies that provide electric capacity or thermal energy (i.e. hot water, chilled water, steam) where and when a commercial or industrial client requires.
Typically, Distributed Energy Resources generate less than 10 MW (megawatts).
Distributed Energy Resources are highly flexible and adaptable, and can therefore, be sized to meet any customer's specific power and energy requirements, at the customers facility or business.
As they are flexible and adaptable for nearly any customer's specific requirements, DER systems can be installed to operate with the local electric grid, or be designed and installed "grid-free" without connecting to the electric grid in island or stand-alone mode.
How are Distributed Energy Resources systems and DER technologies used?
Distributed Energy Resources systems can be used in several ways including managing/reducing energy expenses and ensuring reliable power by augmenting your current energy services.
Distributed Energy Resources systems also enable a facility to operate independently of the electric power grid, whether by choice or out of necessity.
Distributed Energy Resources improve a customer's "carbon footprint" by significantly reducing their greenhouse gas emissions and increasing overall energy efficiency.
Utilities can use Distributed Energy Resources technologies to delay, reduce, or even eliminate the need to obtain additional power generation, transmission, and distribution equipment and infrastructure. At the same time, DER systems can provide voltage support and enhance local reliability.
Energy Resources are
an ideal "demand
side management" solution.
How do I know if Distributed Energy Resources systems and Renewable Energy Technologies are the right choice for my facility?
In today's economy and increasing pressure for businesses to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, there are several economic and environmental factors making Distributed Energy Resources a serious option and alternative. These include the high prices of electricity from the electric grid/electric utility company as well as high natural gas costs from the natural gas utilities. Uncertainties regarding foreign oil, "peak oil" and the ever-increasing potential for disruptions in electricity service and oil from foreign oil countries are causing managers and CEO's of businesses to consider alternatives to traditional energy providers and for new ways to supplement or augment their present energy situation and present suppliers.
This is particularly crucial where a facility’s energy-producing and electric grid infrastructure are aging. The performance, cost, and availability of DER technologies have all been improving steadily over the past several years. New Distributed Energy Resources systems and technologies are significantly more efficient than even ten years ago. Replacing or upgrading your present energy problems with Distributed Energy Resources may pay for itself sooner than expected.
Energy security as well as price of energy has never been a greater concern to businesses and their managers/CEO's and CFO's. Distributed Energy Resources systems can provide the requisite power and energy needed for mission-critical loads, reduce hazardous or costly power outages, and diversify the local energy supply.
What is "Cogeneration"?
Did you know that 10% of our nation's electricity now comes from "cogeneration" plants?
is so efficient, it saves its customers up to 40% on their energy expenses, and
provides even greater savings to our environment through significant reductions
in fuel usage and much lower greenhouse
Cogeneration - also known as “combined heat and power” (CHP), cogen, district energy, total energy, and combined cycle, is the simultaneous production of heat (usually in the form of hot water and/or steam) and power, utilizing one primary fuel such as natural gas, or a renewable fuel, such as Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, or Synthesis Gas.
Cogeneration technology is not the latest industry buzz-word being touted as the solution to our nation's energy woes. Cogeneration is a proven technology that has been around for over 120 years!
Our nation's first commercial power plant was a cogeneration plant that was designed and built by Thomas Edison in 1882 in New York. Our nation's first commercial power plant was called the "Pearl Street Station."
What is "Trigeneration"?
Trigeneration is the simultaneous production of three forms of energy - typically, Cooling, Heating and Power - from only one fuel input. Put another way, our trigeneration power plants produce three different types of energy for the price of one.
Trigeneration energy systems can reach overall system efficiencies of 86% to 93%. Typical "central" power plants, that do not need the heat generated from the combustion and power generation process, are only about 33% efficient.
Trigeneration Diagram & Description
Trigeneration Power Plants' Have the Highest System Efficiencies and are
About 300 % More Efficient than Typical Central Power Plants
Trigeneration plants are installed at locations that can benefit from all three forms of energy. These types of installations that install trigeneration energy systems are called "onsite power generation" also referred to as "decentralized energy."
One of our company's principal's first experience with the design and development of a trigeneration power plant was the trigeneration power plant installation at Rice University in 1987 where our trigeneration development team started out by conducting a "cogeneration" feasibility study. The EPC contractor that Rice University selected installed the trigeneration power which included a 4.0 MW Ruston gas turbine power plant, along with waste heat recovery boilers and Absorption Chillers. A "waste heat recovery boiler" captures the heat from the exhaust of the gas turbine. From there, the recovered energy was converted to chilled water - originally from (3) Hitachi Absorption Chillers - 2 were rated at 1,000 tons each, and the third Hitachi Absorption Chiller was rated at 1,500 tons. The Hitachi Absorption Chillers were replaced shortly after their installation by the EPC company. The first trigeneration plant at Rice University was so successful, they added a second 5.0 MW trigeneration plant so today, Rice University is now generating about 9.0 MW of electricity, and also producing the cooling and heating the university needs from the trigeneration plant and circulating the trigeneration energy around its campus.
Trigeneration's "Super-Efficiency" compared
with other competing technologies
As you can see, there is No Competition for Trigeneration!
Our trigeneration power plants are the ideal onsite power and energy solution for customers that include: Data Centers, Hospitals, Universities, Airports, Central Plants, Colleges & Universities, Dairies, Server Farms, District Heating & Cooling Plants, Food Processing Plants, Golf/Country Clubs, Government Buildings, Grocery Stores, Hotels, Manufacturing Plants, Nursing Homes, Office Buildings / Campuses, Radio Stations, Refrigerated Warehouses, Resorts, Restaurants, Schools, Server Farms, Shopping Centers, Supermarkets, Television Stations, Theatres and Military Bases.
At about 86% to 93% net system efficiency, our trigeneration power plants are about 300% more efficient at providing energy than your current electric utility. That's because the typical electric utility's power plants are only about 33% efficient - they waste 2/3 of the fuel in generating electricity in the enormous amount of waste heat energy that they exhaust through their smokestacks.
Trigeneration is defined as the simultaneous production of three energies: Cooling, Heating and Power. Our trigeneration energy systems use the same amount of fuel in producing three energies that would normally only produce just one type of energy. This means our customers that have our trigeneration power plants have significantly lower energy expenses, and a lower carbon footprint.
Waste Heat Recovery
In most cogeneration and trigeneration power and energy systems, the exhaust gas from the electric generation equipment is ducted to a heat exchanger to recover the thermal energy in the gas. These heat exchangers are air-to-water heat exchangers, where the exhaust gas flows over some form of tube and fin heat exchange surface and the heat from the exhaust gas is transferred to make hot water or steam. The hot water or steam is then used to provide hot water or steam heating and/or to operate thermally activated equipment, such as an absorption chiller for cooling or a desiccant dehumidifer for dehumidification.
Many of the waste heat recovery technologies used in building co/trigeneration systems require hot water, some at moderate pressures of 15 to 150 psig. In the cases where additional steam or pressurized hot water is needed, it may be necessary to provide supplemental heat to the exhaust gas with a duct burner.
In some applications air-to-air heat exchangers can be used. In other instances, if the emissions from the generation equipment are low enough, such as is with many of the microturbine technologies, the hot exhaust gases can be mixed with make-up air and vented directly into the heating system for building heating.
In the majority of installations, a flapper damper or "diverter" is employed to vary flow across the heat transfer surfaces of the heat exchanger to maintain a specific design temperature of the hot water or steam generation rate.
Waste Heat Recovery Installation
In some co/trigeneration designs, the exhaust gases can be used to activate a thermal wheel or a desiccant dehumidifier. Thermal wheels use the exhaust gas to heat a wheel with a medium that absorbs the heat and then transfers the heat when the wheel is rotated into the incoming airflow.
A professional engineer should be involved in designing and sizing of the waste heat recovery section. For a proper and economical operation, the design of the heat recovery section involves consideration of many related factors, such as the thermal capacity of the exhaust gases, the exhaust flow rate, the sizing and type of heat exchanger, and the desired parameters over a various range of operating conditions of the co/trigeneration system — all of which need to be considered for proper and economical operation.
The Market and Potential for Waste Heat Recovery technologies and solutions
There are more than 500,000 smokestacks in the U.S. that are "wasting" heat, an untapped resource that can be converted to energy with Waste Heat Recovery technologies.
About 10% of these 500,000 smokestacks represent about 75% of the available wasted heat which has a stack gas exit temperature above 500 degrees F. which could generate approximately 50,000 megawatts of electricity annually and an annual market of over $75 billion in gross revenues before tax incentives and greenhouse gas emissions credits.
Waste Heat Recovery technologies represent the least cost solution which provides the greatest return on investment, than any other possible green energy technology or "carbon free energy" opportunity!
What is Biomethane?
Biomethane is "renewable natural gas" made from organic sources - which starts out as "biogas" but then is cleaned up in a process called "Biogas to Biomethane" which removes the impurities in biogas such as carbon dioxide, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfides (H2S).
Biomethane is soon to be re-classified from the category of "Low Carbon Fuels" to "Super Low Carbon Fuel" due to it being the greenest of all biofuels!
"Cleaned-up" and ready for use in an onsite cogeneration or trigeneration power plant, the Biomethane could also be sold to a pipeline company and completely replace the "natural gas" that is typically transported to markets via the vast underground pipeline system.
Biomethane will some day replace the "methane" that is sold by natural gas utility companies.
Biomethane has an unlimited supply, whereas the methane sold by gas companies has a limited supply. Biomethane is renewable, whereas the methane sold by your gas utility company is not renewable. Biomethane recovery, use and production generates "Greentags" or a "Renewable Energy Credit" for the owners and is GOOD for our environment.
As previously mentioned, Biomethane is "naturally" produced from organic materials as they decay.
Biomethane include; landfills, POTW's/Wastewaster Treatment Systems, and every tree or agricultural product that is no longer living. Biomethane is also generated from animal operations where manure can be collected and the Biomethane is generated from anaerobic digesters where the manure decomposes.
Biomethane, after installation of the Biomethane equipment is essentially free, as opposed to buying natural gas, presently costing around $10.00/mmbtu.
Methanogenesis is the production of CH4 and CO2 by biological processes that are carried out by methanogens.
Unlike the price of natural gas, which has been very unstable, and wildly fluctuating from $5.50 to as much as $17.00/mmbtu in recent years, Biomethane prices will tend to be more stable over the years. As more and more Biomethane is produced, and produced in reliable and sustainable methods that can fuel our energy needs now and for.
What is "Net Zero Energy" and a Net Zero Energy Building?
Buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of all greenhouse gas emissions (via the energy needed to provide power and energy for them). We provided consulting services for the first "Net Zero Energy" building in the U.S. in 2002, and now providing consulting services for the first Net Zero Energy community of over 200 homes in Southern California. Net Zero Energy is now a reality and provides a home or business with all the power and energy needed, with or without connection to the electric grid. That means, not receiving an electric bill or natural gas bill ever month!
The term "Net Zero Energy" (sometimes referred to as "Zero Energy Capable") refers to homes and buildings produces as much power and energy as it uses over the course of a year. Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) are very energy efficient requiring very little power from the grid.
not be confused by the confusing term; "zero energy" or "zero energy
building." EVERY home or building uses energy, or you may as well be in a cave!
The important considerations are,
1. How efficient is the home or building?
2. How much energy does the home or building use, and how efficiently is it used?
3. How much "carbon free energy" or "pollution free power" is generated by the buildings' own onsite renewable energy system?
4. What are the utility company's prices for the excess power generated and sent to the grid? (see: Net Energy Metering)
5. How difficult is it to interconnect the renewable energy system of the building with the utility company's powerlines/electric grid?
At the heart of a Net Zero Energy Home/Building is the idea that any home or building can meet its energy requirements from low-cost, locally available, nonpolluting, renewable sources, like Solar Trigeneration sm Energy Systems.
Solar Trigeneration sm Energy Systems are the idea whose time has come, to make Net Zero Energy Buildings sm commonplace.
Solar Trigeneration sm Energy Systems Provide All of the Cooling, Heating & Power, for Any Size Building, with only the Energy of the Sun. Solar Trigeneration sm Energy Systems Provide Simultaneous Cooling, Heating & Power whether it is 12 Noon, or 12 Midnight, and can do so, WITHOUT Connection to the electric grid!
The Department of Energy developed the Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) and is pursuing the goal of marketable Net Zero Energy Buildings through research and partnerships.
The DOE's CBI has developed tools and resources to help the commercial buildings industry improve energy efficiency at various levels of energy savings.
* Some of the above information from the Department of Energy, Energy Information Agency and the Renewable Energy Institute.
Decentralized Energy is the opposite of "centralized energy." Decentralized Energy energy generates the power and energy that a residential, commercial or industrial customer needs, onsite. Examples of decentralized energy production are solar energy systems and solar trigeneration energy systems.
Today's electric utility industry was "born" in the 1930's, when fossil fuel prices were cheap, and the cost of wheeling the electricity via transmission power lines, was also cheap. "Central" power plants could be located hundreds of miles from the load centers, or cities, where the electricity was needed. These extreme inefficiencies and cheap fossil fuel prices have added a considerable economic and environmental burden to the consumers and the planet.
Centralized energy is found in the form of electric utility companies that generate power from "central" power plants. Central power plants are highly inefficient, averaging only 33% net system efficiency. This means that the power coming to your home or business - including the line losses and transmission inefficiencies of moving the power - has lost 75% to as much as 80% energy it started with at the "central" power plant. These losses and inefficiencies translate into significantly increased energy expenses by the residential and commercial consumers.
Decentralized Energy is the Best Way to Generate Clean and Green Energy!
How we make and distribute electricity is changing!
The electric power generation, transmission and distribution system (the electric "grid") is changing and evolving from the electric grid of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was inefficient, highly-polluting, very expensive and “dumb.”
The "old" way of generating and distributing energy resembles this slide:
The electric grid of the 21st century (see slide below) will be Decentralized, Smart, Efficient and provide "carbon free energy" and “pollution free power” to customers who remain on the electric grid. Some customers will choose to dis-connect from the grid entirely. (Electric grid represented by the small light blue circles in the slide below.)
the Loss of Polar Bears
Photo courtesy of Alaska Image Library. U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service
America's Clear and Present Danger"
Has INCREASED its' Dependence on Foreign
Sources of Energy by 50% Since 1973.
America is even more "addicted" to foreign oil today, than we were in 1973 - 1974 when OPEC, Saudi Arabia and other suppliers from the Middle-East stopped selling us their fossil fuels, and created a significant blow to our economy.
According to the CIA Fact Book, Every Day, the U.S.
PRODUCES: 7,460,000 bbls of oil
20,800,000 bbls of oil
This Means that 65% of America's Energy Supplies are Now Imported from Suppliers from Foreign Countries.
Simply put, about 65% of the gasoline in your car's gas tank, comes from a foreign country.
EVERY day, the U.S. must IMPORT over 13 million bbls of oil from foreign countries and foreign suppliers to meet demand.
At $80/barrel of oil, this also means that $1,040,000,000.00 American Dollars leave our country, EVERY DAY, to foreign countries/suppliers of our fossil fuels, to pay for the energy we need.
That's $1 Billion EVERY day leaving our economy, and going to support a foreign country's economy.
Talk about our foreign trade deficit..... nearly $400 Billion each year, leaves our country to pay for our oil addiction and the energy we need. To be exact, that's $379,600,000,000.00 American Dollars.
This is NOT acceptable.
America needs to quickly transition to Energy Independence.
Renewable Energy is the Only Way America Can Achieve Energy Independence.
Millions of new and sustainable American jobs would be created here at home, if we would end our addiction to foreign fossil fuels, and quickly transition to an economy based on renewable energy and renewable fuels, produced here in the U.S.A.
The good news is that today, America already has all of the Renewable Energy Resources and Renewable Energy Technologies needed to make American Energy Independence a reality.
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy" sm
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For Led Zeppelin & Jimmy Page fans - signed autograph and picture from Jimmy Page to Monty Goodell found on link below: